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如何练出好速度——好东西共同分享

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发表于 2006-11-7 11:45:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
How to gain speed
如何获得速度

(notes: When mentioning 'technique' I mean by that the four base techniques - tone, chords, scales and arpeggio.)
(注意,每当提到“技巧”,我只包含以下四种,音色、和弦、音阶和琶音)
I guess the first thing about speed my readers of the 'Tremolo'-article would be curious about is the one sentence "Do not practice speed". The reason for this sentence is roughly the same as with tremolo: It is no technique and can't be practiced like a technique.
我想第一件关于速度的问题应该是读了我“颤音”这篇文章的读者好奇为什么上面说“不要练习速度”。这句话的原因和对颤音的解释相同--它不是一项技巧。
1)
What is speed?
什么是速度?
Speed is in essence the ability to maintain achieved potential in controlling one's four base techniques in different rates of time.
In other words; when you're playing a piece double the time then the four base techniques should be the quality as they were played half time.
速度从本质上讲是一种在一定速率下控制好四种基本技巧的能力。换而言之就是当你弹奏一段乐曲时,基本技巧的控制在1/2速率时和在2倍速率时应该控制的一样好。

2)
So how do I increase my rate of performance in time but still preserve my achieved potential in my technique? (How do i play fast, but still controlled?)
那么我应该如何提高我的弹奏速率,同时仍然保持我的技巧稳定。(我如何可以弹得更快,而同时可以控制的住)
When correctly practicing technique (the four base) the rate will increase by itself quite rapidly.
当你正确的练习基本技巧时速度会自然而然的加快。

3)
wth...?! Really??
哇..?是真的吗?
Heh, actually, we people are extremely fast as it is. The muscle contraction in humans are so lightning quick that the sentence 'building speed' just becomes absurd: We already have the ability, by physiology, to play at incredible speeds.
呵呵,事实上,人们速度的极限是这样的。肌肉可以在一瞬间收缩因此‘提高速度’变得很荒唐。我们与生俱来这种弹得很快的能力。
The key to speed is this: Less tension and more control
因此速度的关键是:放松和更好的独立性。
A totally relaxed muscle will have no hinders in reacting extremely quick and putting this potential under control will make for what is called speed.
完全的放松可以使快速的演奏没有阻碍同时加上很好的控制就得到了我们所说的速度。
Guitarists that has practiced a great deal of control/base technique would totally disagree that speed comes by itself. This is mainly because they haven't practised less tension in order to let their control reach its full potential - and therefore speed:
Zero tension x control = full potential of speed2
经过大量控制和基础练习的吉他手都回同意速度来自于练习本身。这主要是由于他们练习时尽量的放松为了控制尽可能快的速度。因此速度就是:
0紧张 x 控制力= 最快的速度
Many experienced guitarists, myself included, has practiced in a way that forced the fingers to move at higher speeds. This works too, but like mentioned in the tremolo article that makes for a bastard technique that lacks control and can't easily be adjusted or trusted in a concert situation. (Trust me, I know;)
许多长期弹吉它的人,包括我,在练习的时候强迫手指作快速的运动。这样尽管也有作用,但是这样会导致在“颤音”中提到的结果,形成恶劣的缺乏控制的技巧,从而难以纠正以及参加正式的演奏会。
4)
How do i practice relaxation/less tension?
我应该如何练习放松?
Relaxation isn't as easy as it sounds, so the question is very relevant.
放松并不像听起来那么容易,所以这个问题很重要。
There are different methods to achieve greater relaxation / less tension. I will write my own personal experiences to give some example, but i encourage you to google and search this forum for more about this topic. Maybe I'll do some more research and make an article out of it.
有很多方法来实现放松。我将把自己的一些经验作为例子,同时我希望大家能用goole等搜索更多关于这个主题的知识。兴许我可以出一本关于这方面知识的书。
First of all you should have a quiet and nice place to practice in. It's important that you leave your work, problems and personal disagreements outside the door. In time this mindset will become an habit and the time of practice will turn into a safe haven. Also consult literature and forums about relaxation, yoga, physiology and tai chi in general.
首先你应该有一个安静良好的练习地。放下你的工作,烦恼和不顺心的事情对于练习很重要。这种平静状态下的心理将成为一种习惯同时在这种心态下练习将带你进入一个平静的天堂。可以参考文献和论坛上关于休闲,瑜伽,心理学和太极都是同样的道理。
When sitting comfortably place your left hand of the fingerboard and without depressing it place the second finger on the C on fifth string.
Just keep it there for a second while just taking in how your hand feels.
首先坐在一个舒适的地方,把左手放在指板上同时用2指压住5弦上的三品其他指头什么也不按。保持这种感觉几秒钟然后发现你的手有什么感觉。
Check for tension.
检查紧张的程度。
Slowly place the fourth finger on the D on fifth string, still without depressing it. Notice how the muscles react to what youre telling them.
慢慢的把小指移动到5弦的5品,同时仍然保持不要按弦。注意你的肌肉是如何在你的指挥下活动的。
Again, check for tension.
再一次检测紧张的程度。
Place your first finger on the E on fourth string and proceed through the C scale. When you're through start over, only this time depress the string so that it barely touches the fret. Proceed through the scale (it surely isnt pretty tones, but thats the sign youre doing it correctly). How does your hand feel? Completely relaxed, or could you be even more loose but still retain control? One can only relax this much before losing control, So it goes hand in hand those two.
Also notice how the left hand reacts to what the right hand is doing and vice versa.
把你的食指放到4弦2品,然后从这里开始向下移动到10品。当你移动的时候手压在弦上,同时确定弦近乎碰到品丝但是不要碰到。(这样可能会发出不好听的声音,但这证明你做对了)这时你的手有什么感觉?完全的放松?或者仍然会紧张但是可以保持控制?一个人要在失控之前保持尽量的放松,因为这两者相互关联着。在注意你的左手的同时也要注意你的右手,看他在左手运动的时候在干什么并且纠正错误的动作。
Sitting like this for two minutes before proceeding with practice will effectively tell your brain whats right and whats not. Ofcourse it takes some time, but it pays off well.
在你每天开始练习之前这样放松的静坐两分钟,这样有助于告诉你的大脑什么是正确的或者是错误的。尽管这会占用一些时间,但是肯定是你值得付出的。
- We humans are set up in a way that makes us react with greater effort and strength when encountered with a difficult task. When lifting 20 punds of sugar we double the effort from lifting 10 pounds, thats pretty logical. So we apply this logic when faced with the challenges of the guitar: If it's hard to do, we increase tension and strength. Unfortunately this works to a certain degree and young students will apply this logic all the way through their ambitions till they eventually reach carpal tunnel syndrome. -
人们在接受过一些困难的训练之后可以变得更强壮。我们用两倍于拿起10磅重的力量来拿起20磅重的东西,这看起来是简单的逻辑。所以我们遵循这种逻辑来面对吉它上面的挑战,当遇到困难处便增加手的力量和紧张度。不幸的是这样做只能在一定的级别起作用从而一些新手便遵循这种逻辑苦练下去知道他们患上手腕的综合症。

It has been my experience that when playing with less and less tension I have reached a certain point where I feel I can't relax anymore, or else I'll lose control over my fingers. That is just a phase where trust in the hands is put to the test.If arpeggio is practiced daily for a while the fingers just refuse to do anything but hitting the string in the right place. One just has to get used to the fingers not using any muscles besides those absolutely necessary for performing the stroke.
我的经验是在练习中尽可能的放松自己,直到感觉不能再放松了或者控制不住手指的时候作为目的。这只是练习的一个阶段。如果每天练习一段时间的琶音,你的手指将会不犯任何错误而正确弹奏每一下。一个人仅仅需要达到在弹奏时只运用相关手指的肌肉的程度就足够了。
 楼主| 发表于 2006-11-7 11:47:52 | 显示全部楼层
Practicals:
练习
-When ready to step the piece up a notch make sure all four parts of base technique are thoroughly practiced and one feels in control. Then relax and take it up to where problems emerge. Then in slightly lesser tempo revisit the four techniques and practice until you feel confident in all of them. Then take it up another notch. Everytime the tempo is changed we have to 'learn' the piece all over, but luckily - as long as the fundamentals are learned - that takes less and less time as the tempo increases.
当你准备好练习更难一点的曲目时,要保证你认真彻底的练习好了四项基本技巧同时能够控制住他们。然后放松下来并起发掘还存在的问题。接下来以稍慢一点的速度来练习这四项技巧直到你有足够的把握来弹奏他们。然后就可以进入新的阶段。每当速度产生变化的时候我们都不得不重新开始学习一段曲目,不过幸运的是在此同时也练习了基本功,而且变速练习的效果要大大好于不断增加速度的练习。
Sometimes You'll encounter problems that wont solve themselves no matter how patient you are. Then you should include etudes and exercises that will emulate this technical problem and include these into your daily practice.
有时候会遇到一些无论你自己怎么耐心也解决不了的问题。这时你需要学习一些能够解决这些问题的知识和练习同时把这些内容添加到日常练习里面去。
Mind you, this article isnt meant to shoot novice guitarists into the sky and have them play Un Sueno en la Floresta after a week of practcing, thats just not how it works. But the principle of speed should be added, provided that the four base techniques are well known and practiced.
请注意,这片文章并不意味着一个初学者能很快成为顶尖高手或者让他们在一个星期后能象Un Sueno en la Floresta一样的演奏,这不是本文的主旨。而本文是在关于速度的主题下说明四项基本技巧的重要性和练习方法。
-Relaxation is a skill in which we must invest time. Effort is the opposite of relaxation, so try to increase awareness about when you are pushing towrds, and when you are floating towards relaxation.
放松是我们必须花费时间来练习的技能。而努力则是放松的另一方面,所以我们必须能意识到自己何时偏向哪一方面。
-When practicing arpeggio patterns at a new level of less tension you will notice how you fatigue more easily than before. This is because less muscles - and eventually only the muscles required to perform the actions - are used.
Therefore it is very important to respect the fingers and not let them go on overload. Decrease the amount of time and number of exercises and slowly build upwards.
当你练习琶音到一个新的不紧张的级别时,你会发现你将不再象以前那样感觉到疲劳。这是因为更少的使用肌肉,更重要的是只使用了有必要肌肉。因此呵护你的手指并不让他们过度疲劳是非常重要的。适当的减少练习的时间和数量,要循序渐进的取得进步。
One could say that when playing exercises and etudes faster and faster one is practicing speed. This is partly true and I would like to sum up my article with an answer to that:
One is adepting the skill of lesser tension, practicing control by employing the four base techniques and gaining speed as a result of those two.
Less tension x more control = Speed
有人可能会说弹奏的越来越快就是练习速度。这只是部分正确,我在这里总结一下我在文章中的答案:
首先适应放松的感觉,然后练习对四种基本技巧的控制,最后你将在这两者的结合下获得速度。
减少紧张 x 增加控制力= 速度

I'm not trying to be an expert or an authority on these subjects, I just wanna share the stuff that made my own ability as a guitarist increase alot.I hope you can benefit from these articles.
我不准备成为一个专家或者权威在这个主题上,我只想分享我一些使我进步很大的经验。希望各位能够从中受益。
All critizism and questions are warmly welcomed
欢迎所有的评论和问题。

以下是一个关于这个帖子的问题和答案,希望对大家有用。
Okay, here is my question. I'm well on the way to believing that slow practice leads to better results, and I also know that releasing tension as I am practicing improves my playing. There is however, that tremendous push to bring something up to tempo and I can often play something better at a faster tempo rather than a slower one. When I slow it down, the effort becomes intense and the product is more often than not unpleasing which leads to greater tension and more frustration.
ok,我有一个问题。我非常相信慢练可以取得更好的效果,并且我也知道放松有助于提高弹奏水平。问题很奇怪,在加快速度以后,我可以在快速的时候弹得比在慢速的时候好。当我减速时,动作变得紧张同时弹出来的声音变得不好这样使我更加的紧张和更多失误。


OK here's an interesting situation. You can play the hard stuff but not the easy stuff?? That's quite a paradox.
好的,这是一个很有趣的现象,你可以弹难的却弹不了容易的??这确实让人觉得奇怪。
Part of the "easiness" of faster playing is that we accept more sloppiness since it goes by so fast. So maybe you aren't really playing it better at the faster tempo but just are more aware of what's happening at the slower tempo.
我们认为部分让人感觉简单的快速弹奏,是因为在快速弹奏中马虎凌乱的处理。因此你并不是真正在快速时弹奏的更好,而是在慢速中了解了更多弹奏中出现的问题。
Also we tend to try to maintain the same feel of "effort." When practicing slowly there should be considerably less physical effort. If you are trying to "carefully muscle your way to perfection" at a slow tempo this could be causing a
problem. In slow practice you should be trying to do smooth, coordinated simple movements that can easily be speeded up.

同样的我们喜欢尝试感受‘努力’的感觉。当我们练习慢速时可能会认为自己付出了更少的努力。如果你在慢速的弹奏中仔细的注意肌肉的运动,这时可能会发现一些问题。在慢速练习中你必须努力弹得连贯,在协调好简单的运动之后才可以轻松的提速。

全文译完。
谢谢大家的耐心,这篇和上一篇管与如何弹好颤音的文章出自同一个人。摘自http://www.delcamp.net/forum/en/ ... bac8f0adf25b382d282

我自己也在练习中运用了这里面提到的:减少紧张 x 增加控制力= 速度
理念,很管用,但是也很考验耐心。作者多次提到四项基本功的重要性,有一个好的基础是弹奏的必备条件,希望大家放下一步登天的想法循序渐进。一点拙见,见笑了。
发表于 2006-11-7 12:01:09 | 显示全部楼层
好文呀,0紧张*控制=速度,好!这段正在体会放松呢,也是因为想上速度而苦恼,下去慢慢体会了
发表于 2006-11-7 17:29:45 | 显示全部楼层
楼主辛苦了,对你的工作我们表示非常感谢.
但对文章内容不敢沟通,一看就知道出于同一个人,练习放松最好的方法是去睡觉.每天都走很多路的人是否跑起来就很快?
我的问题很偏激,但不是无理取闹.肌肉运动控制的锻炼在体育,杂技等中太常见了,不是什么秘密.动作很多种练习,一是力量,力量又分为爆发力和耐力训练,二是动作的准确性,三是速度或频率,四是稳定性.关于训练的方法就不多说了,但放松不是训练的方法,它应该是训练的结果.
发表于 2006-11-7 17:43:26 | 显示全部楼层
原帖由 老马哥 于 2006-11-7 12:01 发表
好文呀,0紧张*控制=速度,好!这段正在体会放松呢,也是因为想上速度而苦恼,下去慢慢体会了

^7^7^7
发表于 2006-11-7 18:35:27 | 显示全部楼层
哈哈!!4楼说的有道理!!!!
 楼主| 发表于 2006-11-8 15:29:12 | 显示全部楼层
flli883:
       你好~我想你没有认真地理解全文。
        放松是一种状态,而且是一种在练习时要时刻用心注意的状态。这种感觉需要通过日常的训练来掌握。你所提到的耐力,准确性等..我想可以包括到提高控制性的范围去。于是有了作者最后的总结"首先适应放松的感觉,然后练习对四种基本技巧的控制,最后你将在这两者的结合下获得速度。"打个比方说就是一个人的健康不仅要身体健康同时还要心理健康,而放松的状态就是心理健康,良好的对四种技巧的控制能力就是身体健康,两者要均衡发展才能达到综合素质的提高。
发表于 2006-11-8 15:46:04 | 显示全部楼层
没有经过正确的训练, 观察大师的演奏不一定能得出正确的结论. 大师们的紧张, 放松, 貌似紧张和貌似放松, 有时候会给初学者带来误会. Hector Quine 在Guitar Technique: Intermediate to Advanced一书(一本书全是理论论述)专门讲述过这个误区, 绝对的放松实际上是躺下来不干了, 大师们有时候是看起来放松实际上紧张, 给观众造成放松的印象. 练习和演奏时要学会放弃不必要的紧张, 而不是整天想着如何去放松.
flli883 说的有一定道理.
发表于 2006-11-8 20:01:11 | 显示全部楼层
很好的文章,楼主辛苦了
发表于 2006-11-9 08:34:24 | 显示全部楼层
好文章,身体放松, 心理放松,弹完的手指放松。这放松不是楼上朋友说的绝对放松呵呵,身体放松但不能瘫倒,心理放松还得注意手指的运动以及聆听,右手弹完弦后的手指放松除了能训练出好的音色外,也是训练手指独立性的一个好办法。
发表于 2006-11-12 09:13:50 | 显示全部楼层
好东西,学习了
发表于 2006-11-16 23:10:54 | 显示全部楼层
速度总是有个极限,快则快,慢则慢.不必强求.杨学非说得可能有道理.有的人天生就快一些.有的人刚好相反.
本周日要上台,预演大独奏,可电视台的人说太长了,[我弹完6分30秒.]选个短的,片断也行,于是就传奇,重复第一段二次,当中加上削减的间奏,2分20秒,想不到大家都说好----这样掌声就会来的更加刺激.可怜的商业演出.规定了总演出时间80分钟.
要刺激,那好.就让主持人给润色润色,就说是盛大公司传奇主题曲,杀戮,攻城,围攻,突围,血腥,刺激,看得你红眼,听得你血脉喷张.
上半场传奇,下半场就大叫堂第三乐章,同样一个2分30秒.博点掌声就算.
--------可怜的卡伐谛那,弹完它得5分钟,一边凉快去,听着就想睡.^9

[ 本帖最后由 12356 于 2006-11-16 23:16 编辑 ]
发表于 2006-11-16 23:35:42 | 显示全部楼层
好文,有收获,谢谢楼主
发表于 2006-11-17 20:51:43 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享.   好文.  学习.
发表于 2011-4-15 02:29:18 | 显示全部楼层
收益了。
发表于 2011-4-15 12:31:32 | 显示全部楼层
文章的内容,要看读者是如何去理解,如何去做了,这也许就是所谓的悟性吧!
发表于 2011-4-15 13:17:44 | 显示全部楼层
還是那句老話,給你一本九陽真經,你就能練出蓋世神功?有些除了悟性外,很多東西是天生的,強求不來的。但勤能補絀,勤練後就算不能成為大師,至少也是一位不可多得的高手啊!
发表于 2011-10-27 19:18:18 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主分享 学习了
发表于 2011-10-27 19:38:33 | 显示全部楼层
好东西呀
发表于 2011-10-27 19:47:56 | 显示全部楼层

11111

发表于 2011-10-27 20:48:29 | 显示全部楼层
受益匪浅,谢谢!
发表于 2011-10-27 22:53:03 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2011-10-27 22:55:59 | 显示全部楼层
迟到的精华。
头像被屏蔽
发表于 2011-10-28 06:20:16 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2011-10-28 09:42:47 | 显示全部楼层
水份少,分量足。
发表于 2011-10-28 10:10:12 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2011-10-28 11:29:18 | 显示全部楼层
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